Webster’s 1828 Dictionary

(Numbers In Bold & Underlined Apply and are Appropriate)





1. Extreme hatred; detestation.


2. The object of detestation, a common signification in scripture.


The way of the wicked is an abomination to the Lord. Proverbs 15.


3. Hence, defilement, pollution, in a physical sense, or evil doctrines and practices, which are moral defilements, idols and idolatry, are called abominations. The Jews were an abomination to the Egyptians; and the sacred animals of the Egyptians were an abomination to the Jews. The Roman army is called the abomination of desolation. Matthew 24:13. In short, whatever is an object of extreme hatred, is called an abomination.


AD'AMANT, n. Gr.; L. adamas; a word of Celtic origin.


A very hard or impenetrable stone; a name given to the diamond and other substances of extreme hardness. The name has often been given to the load stone; but in modern mineralogy, it has no technical signification.


A'LIENATE, v.t. L. alieno.


1. To transfer title, property or right to another; as, to alienate lands, or sovereignty.


2. To estrange; to withdraw, as the affections; to make indifferent or averse, where love or friendship before subsisted; with from; as, to alienate the heart or affections; to alienate a man from the friends of his youth.


3. To apply to a wrong use.


They shall not alienate the first fruits of the land. Ezekiel 48.


A'LIENATE, a. L. alienatus.


Estranged; withdrawn from; stranger to; with from.


O alienate from God, O spirit accurst.


The whigs were alienate from truth.


AN'GUISH, n. L. angustia, narrowness, from pressure. See Anger.


Extreme pain, either of body or mind. As bodily pain, it may differ from agony, which is such distress of the whole body as to cause contortion, whereas anguish may be a local pain as of an ulcer, or gout. But anguish and agony are nearly synonymous. As pain of the mind, it signifies any keen distress from sorrow, remorse, despair and kindred passions.


And they hearkened not to Moses, for anguish of spirit, and for cruel bondage. Exodus 6.


AN'GUISH, v.t. To distress with extreme pain or grief.


AN'GUISHED, pp. Extremely pained; tortured; deeply distressed.


ASUND'ER, adv. See sunder.


Apart; into parts; separately; in a divided state.


The Lord hath cut asunder the cords of the wicked. Psalms 129.


ASSU'RE, v.t. ashu're. See Assurance.


1. To make certain; to give confidence by a promise, declaration, or other evidence; as, he assured me of his sincerity.


2. To confirm; to make certain or secure.


And it shall be assured to him. Leviticus 28.


3. To embolden; to make confident.


And hereby we shall assure our hearts before him. 1 John 3.


4. To make secure, with of before the object secured; as, let me be assured of your fidelity.


5. To affiance; to betroth. Obs.


6. To insure; to covenant to indemnify for loss. See Insure.


ASTON'ISH, v.t. L. attono, to astonish; ad and tono. See Tone and Stun.


To stun or strike dumb with sudden fear, terror, surprise or wonder; to amaze; to confound with some sudden passion.


I Daniel was astonished at the vision. Daniel 8.


ASTON'ISHED, pp. Amazed; confounded with fear, surprise, or admiration.


AWE, n. aw. Gr. to be astonished.


1. Fear mingled with admiration or reverence; reverential fear.


Stand in awe and sin not. Psalms 4.


2. Fear; dread inspired by something great, or terrific.


AWE, v.t. To strike with fear and reverence; to influence by fear, terror or respect; as, his majesty awed them into silence.


BACKSLI'DE, v.i. back and slide. To fall off; to apostatize; to turn gradually from the faith and practice of Christianity. Jeremiah 3, Hosea 4.


BEGUI'LE, v.t. begi'le. be and guile. To delude; to deceive; to impose on by artifice or craft.


The serpent beguiled me and I did eat Genesis 3.


1. To elude by craft.


When misery could beguile the tyrant's rage.


2. To elude any thing disagreeable by amusement, or other means; to pass pleasingly; to amuse; as, to beguile the tedious day with sleep.


BLAS'PHEMY, n. An indignity offered to God by words or writing; reproachful, contemptuous or irreverent words uttered impiously against Jehovah.


Blasphemy is an injury offered to God, by denying that which is due and belonging to him, or attributing to him that which is not agreeable to his nature.


In the middle ages, blasphemy was used to denote simply the blaming or condemning of a person or thing. Among the Greeks, to blaspheme was to use words of ill omen, which they were careful to avoid.


1. That which derogates from the prerogatives of God. Mark 2.




1. Sharp, or biting to the taste; acrid; like wormwood.


2. Sharp; cruel; severe; as bitter enmity. Hebrews 1.


3. Sharp, as words, reproachful; sarcastic.


4. Sharp to the feeling; piercing; painful; that makes to smart; as a bitter cold day, or a bitter blast.


5. Painful to the mind; calamitous; poignant; as a bitter fate.


6. Afflicted; distressed.


The Egyptians made their lives bitter. Exodus 1.


7. Hurtful; very sinful.


Is is an evil and bitter thing. Jeremiah 2.


8. Mournful; distressing; expressive of misory; as a bitter complaint or lamentation. Job.23, Jeremiah 6.31.


BIT'TER, n. A substance that is bitter. See Bitter.


BIT'TER, n. See Bitts. In marine language, a turn of the cable which is round the bitts.


Bitter-end, that part of a cable which is abaft the bitts, and therefore within board, when the ship rides at anchor.


BOAST, v.i. Gr. to inflate; L. fastus.


1. To brag, or vaunt one's self; to make an ostentatious display, in speech, of one's own worth, property, or actions.


2. To glory; to speak with laudable pride and ostentation of meritorious persons or things.


I boast of you to them of Macedonia. St. Paul. 2 Corinthians .9.


Usually, it is followed by of; sometimes by in.


3. To exalt one's self.


With your mouth you have boasted against me. Ezekiel.


BOAST, v.t. To display in ostentatious language; to speak of with pride, vanity or exultation, with a view to self-commendation.


Lest men should boast their specious deeds.


1. Magnify or exalt.


They boast themselves in the multitude of their riches. Psalms 49.


2. To exult in confident expectation.


Boast not thyself of tomorrow. Proverbs 27.


BOAST, n. Expression of ostentation, pride or vanity; a vaunting.


Thou makest thy boast of the law. Romans 2


1. The cause of boasting; occasion of pride, vanity, or laudable exultation.


Trial by peers is the boast of the British nation.


BOW, v.t.


1. To bend; to inflect; as, to bow vines.


2. To bend the body in token of respect or civility; as, to bow the head.


3. To bend or incline towards, in condescension.


Bow down thine ear to the poor. Ecclesiastes


4. To depress; to crush; to subdue.


His heavy hand hath bowed you to the grave.


He bows the nations to his will.


BOW, v.i. To bend; to curve; to be inflected; to bend, in token of reverence, respect or civility; often with down.


This is the idol to which the world bows.


1. To stoop; to fall upon the knees.


The people bowed upon their knees.


2. To sink under pressure.


They stoop; they bow down together. Isaiah.


BOW, n. An inclination of the head, or a bending of the body, in token of reverence, respect, civility, or submission.


BOW'ED, pp. Bent; crushed; subdued.




1. To correct by punishment; to punish; to inflict pain for the purpose of reclaiming an offender; as, to chasten a son with a rod.


I will chasten him with the rod of men. 2 Samuel 7.


2. To afflict by other means.


As many as I love I rebuke and chasten. Revelation 3.


3. To purify from errors or faults.




1. To converse; to talk together familiarly; to impart sentiments mutually, in private or familiar discourse; followed by with before the person.


And there will I meet and commune with thee. Exodus 25.


2. To have intercourse in contemplation or meditation.


Commune with your own heart or your bed. Psalms 4.


3. To partake of the sacrament or Lords supper; to receive the communion; a common use of the word in America, as it is in the Welsh.


COMMUNE, n. A small territorial district in France--one of the subordinate divisions of the country introduced in the late revolution.


Communibus annis, one year with another; on an average.


Communibus locis, one place with another; on a medium.


CONCEIVE, v.t. L., to take.


1. To receive into the womb, and breed; to begin the formation of the embryo or fetus of animal.


Then shall she be free and conceive seed. Numbers 5. Hebrew 11.


Elisabeth hath conceived a son in her old age. Luke 1.


In sin did my mother conceive me. Psalm 51.


2. To form in the mind; to imagine; to devise.


They conceive mischief and bring forth vanity. Job 15.


Nebuchadnezzar hath conceived a purpose against you. Jeremiah 49.


3. To form an idea in the mind; to understand; to comprehend.


We cannot conceive the manner in which spirit operates upon matter.


4. To think; to be of opinion; to have an idea; to imagine.


You can hardly conceive this man to have been bred in the same climate.




1. To have a fetus formed in the womb; to breed; to become pregnant.


Thou shalt conceive and bear a son. Judges 13.


2. To think; to have a conception or idea.


Conceive of things clearly and distinctly in their own natures. The grieved commons hardly conceive of me.


3. To understand; to comprehend; to have a complete idea of; as, I cannot conceive by what means this event has been produced.


CONCEIVED, pp. Formed in the womb; framed in the mind; devised; imagined; understood.


CONSCIENCE, n. L., to know, to be privy to.


1. Internal or self-knowledge, or judgment of right and wrong; or the faculty, power or principle within us, which decides on the lawfulness or unlawfulness of our own actions and affections, and instantly approves or condemns them. Conscience is called by some writers the moral sense, and considered as an original faculty of our nature. Others question the propriety of considering conscience as a distinct faculty or principle. The consider it rather as the general principle of moral approbation or disapprobation, applied to ones own conduct and affections; alledging that our notions of right and wrong are not to be deduced from a single principle or faculty, but from various powers of the understanding and will.


Being convicted by their own conscience, they went out one by one. John 8.


The conscience manifests itself in the feeling of obligation we experience, which precedes, attends and follows our actions.


Conscience is first occupied in ascertaining our duty, before we proceed to action; then in judging of our actions when performed.


2. The estimate or determination of conscience; justice; honesty.


What you require cannot, in conscience, be deferred.


3. Real sentiment; private thought; truth; as, do you in conscience believe the story?


4. Consciousness; knowledge of our own actions or thought.


The sweetest cordial we receive at last, is conscience of our virtuous actions past.


This primary sense of the word is nearly, perhaps wholly obsolete.


5. Knowledge of the actions of others.


6. In ludicrous language, reason or reasonableness.


Half a dozen fools are, in all conscience, as many as you should require.


To make conscience or a matter of conscience, is to act according to the dictates of conscience, or to scruple to act contrary to its dictates.


Court of conscience, a court established for the recovery of small debts in London and other trading cities and districts.


CONTEMNED, pp. Despised; scorned; slighted; neglected, or rejected with disdain.


CONTRITE, a. L., to break or bruise; to rub or wear. See Trite. Literally, worn or bruised. Hence, broken-hearted for sin; deeply affected with grief and sorrow for having offended God; humble; penitent; as a contrite sinner.


A broken and a contrite heart, O God, thou wilt not despise. Psalm 51.


COVET, v.t.


1. To desire or wish for, with eagerness; to desire earnestly to obtain or possess; in a good sense.


Covet earnestly the best gifts. 1 Corinthians 12.


2. To desire inordinately; to desire that which it is unlawful to obtain or possess; in a bad sense.


Thou shalt not covet thy neighbors house, wife or servant. Exodus 20.


COVET, v.i. To have an earnest desire. 1 Timothy 6.




1. A strong or inordinate desire of obtaining and possessing some supposed good; usually in a bad sense, and applied to an inordinate desire of wealth or avarice.


Out of the heart proceedeth covetousness. Mark 7.


Mortify your members--and covetousness which is idolatry. Colossians 3.


2. Strong desire; eagerness.


DEFILE, v.t.


1. To make unclean; to render foul or dirty; in a general sense.


2. To make impure; to render turbid; as, the water or liquor is defiled.


3. To soil or sully; to tarnish; as reputation, &c.


He is among the greatest prelates of the age; however his character may be defiled by dirty hands.


They shall defile thy brightness. Ezekiel 28.


4. To pollute; to make ceremonially unclean.


That which dieth of itself, he shall not eat, to defile himself therewith. Leviticus 22.


5. To corrupt chastity; to debauch; to violate; to tarnish the purity of character by lewdness.


Schechem defiled Dinah. Genesis 34.


6. To taint, in a moral sense; to corrupt; to vitiate; to render impure with sin.


Defile not yourselves with the idols of Egypt. Ezekiel 20.


He hath defiled the sanctuary of the Lord. Numbers 19.


DEFILE, v.i. L. A thread. To march off in a line, or file by file; to file off.


DEFILE, n. A narrow passage or way, in which troops may march only in a file, or with a narrow front; a long narrow pass, as between hills, &c.


DEFILED, pp. Made dirty, or foul; polluted; soiled; corrupted; violated; vitiated.




1. Destitute or deprived of inhabitants; desert; uninhabited; denoting either stripped of inhabitants, or never having been inhabitated; as a desolate isle; a desolate wilderness.


I will make the cities of Judah desolate, without an inhabitant. Jeremiah 9.


2. Laid waste; in a ruinous condition; neglected; destroyed; as desolate altars; desolate towers. Ezek. Zeph.


3. Solitary; without a companion; afflicted.


Tamar remained desolate in Absaloms house. 2 Samuel 13.


4. Deserted of God; deprived of comfort.


My heart within me is desolate. Psalms 143.


DESPISE, .v.t.


1. To contemn; to scorn; to disdain; to have the lowest opinion of.


Fools despise wisdom and instruction. Prov. 1.


Else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Matthew 6.


2. To abhor.


DESPISED, pp. Contemned; disdained; abhorred.


DESPITEFUL, a. Full of spite; malicious; malignant; as a despiteful enemy.


Haters of God, despiteful, proud, boasters. Romans 1.




1. That which is formed by design, or invented; scheme; artificial contrivance; stratagem; project; sometimes in a good sense; more generally in a bad sense, as artifices are usually employed for bad purposes.


In a good sense:


His device is against Babylon, to destroy it. Jeremiah 51.


In a bad sense:


He disappointeth the devices of the crafty. Job 5.


They imagined a mischievous device. Psalm 21.


2. An emblem intended to represent a family, person, action or quality, with a suitable motto; used in painting, sculpture and heraldry. It consists in a metaphorical similitude between the things representing and represented, as the figure of a plow representing agriculture.


Knights-errant used to distinguish themselves by devices on their shields.


3. Invention; genius; faculty of devising; as a man of noble device.


4. A spectacle or show.


DILIGENCE, n. L., to love earnestly; to choose.


1. Steady application in business of any kind; constant effort to accomplish what is undertaken; exertion of body or mind without unnecessary delay or sloth; due attention; industry; assiduity.


Diligence is the philosophers stone that turns every thing to gold.


Brethren, give diligence to make your calling and election sure. 2 Peter 1.


2. Care; heed; heedfulness.


Keep thy heart with all diligence. Proverbs 4.


3. The name of a stage-coach, used in France.


DISCERN, v. t. s as z. L., to separate or distinguish, Gr.


1. To separate by the eye, or by the understanding. Hence,


2. To distinguish; to see the difference between two or more things; to discriminate; as, to discern the blossom-buds from the leaf-buds of plants.


Discern thou what is thine--Genesis 31.


3. To make the difference.


For nothing else discerns the virtue or the vice.


4. To discover; to see; to distinguish by the eye.


I discerned among the youths, a young man void of understanding. Proverbs 7.


5. To discover by the intellect; to distinguish; hence, to have knowledge of; to judge.


So is my lord the king to discern good and bad. 2 Samuel 14.


A wise mans heart discerneth time and judgment. Ecclesiastes 8.




1. To see or understand the difference; to make distinction; as, to discern between good and evil, truth and falsehood.


2. To have judicial cognizance.


DISCOURAGE, v.t. discurage. dis and courage. See Courage.


1. To extinguish the courage of; to dishearten; to depress the spirits; to deject; to deprive of confidence.


Fathers, provoke not your children, lest they be discouraged. Colossians 3.


2. To deter from any thing; with from.


Why discourage ye the hearts of the children of Israel from going over into the land which the Lord hath given them? Numbers 32.


3. To attempt to repress or prevent; to dissuade from; as, to discourage an effort.


DISCOURAGED, pp. Discuraged. Disheartened; deprived of courage or confidence; depressed in spirits; dejected; checked.




1. To hide under a false appearance; to conceal; to disguise; to pretend that not to be which really is; as, I will not dissemble the truth; I cannot dissemble my real sentiments. This is the proper sense of this word.


2. To pretend that to be which is not; to make a false appearance of. This is the sense of simulate.


Your son Lucentio doth love my daughter, and she loveth him, or both dissemble deeply their affections.


DISSEMBLE, v.i. To be hypocritical; to assume a false appearance; to conceal the real fact, motives, intention or sentiments under some pretense.


Ye have stolen and dissembled also. Joshua 7.


He that hateth, dissembleth with his lips. Proverbs 26.


DISQUIET, a. dis and quiet. Unquiet; restless; uneasy. Seldom used.


DISQUIET, n. Want of quiet; uneasiness; restlessness; want of tranquility in body or mind; disturbance; anxiety.


DISQUIET, v.t. To disturb; to deprive of peace, rest or tranquility; to make uneasy or restless; to harass the body; to fret or vex the mind.


That he may disquiet the inhabitants of Babylon. Jeremiah 1.


Why hast thou disquieted me. 1 Samuel 28.


O my soul, why art thou disquieted within me? Psalm 42.


DISQUIETED, pp. Made uneasy or restless; disturbed; harassed.


DIVERS, a. S as z. L., to turn.


1. Different; various.


Thou shalt not sow thy fields with divers seeds. Deuteronomy 21.


Nor let thy cattle gender with divers kinds. Leviticus 19.


This is now generally written diverse.


2. Several; sundry; more than one, but not a great number. We have divers examples of this kind. This word is not obsolete even in common discourse, and is much used in law proceedings.


DOUBT, v.i. dout. L., G.


1. To waver or fluctuate in opinion; to hesitate; to be in suspense; to be in uncertainty; to be in suspense; to be in uncertainty, respecting the truth or fact; to be undetermined.


Even in matters divine, concerning some things, we may lawfully doubt and suspend our judgment.


So we say, I doubt whether it is proper; I doubt whether I shall go; sometimes with of, as we doubt of a fact.


2. To fear; to be apprehensive; to suspect.


I doubt there is deep resentment in his mind.


DOUBT, v.t. dout.


1. To question, or hold questionable; to withhold assent from; to hesitate to believe; as, I have heard the story, but I doubt the truth of it.


2. To fear; to suspect.


If they turn not back perverse; but that I doubt.


3. To distrust; to withhold confidence from; as, to doubt our ability to execute an office.

Tadmire superior sense, and doubt their own.


4. To fill with fear.


DOUBT, n. Dout.


1. A fluctuation of mind respecting truth or propriety, arising from defect of knowledge or evidence; uncertainty of mind; suspense; unsettled state of opinion; as, to have doubts respecting the theory of the tides.


Joseph is without doubt rent in pieces. Genesis 37.


2. Uncertainty of condition.


Thy life shall hang in doubt before thee. Deuteronomy 28.


3. Suspicion; fear; apprehension.


I stand in doubt of you. Galatians 4.


4. Difficulty objected.


To every doubt your answer is the same.


5. Dread; horror and danger.


DWELL, v.i. pret. dwelled, usually contracted into dwelt. See Dally.


1. To abide as a permanent resident, or to inhabit for a time; to live in a place; to have a habitation for some time or permanence.


God shall enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem. Genesis 9.


Dwell imports a residence of some continuance. We use abide for the resting of a night or an hour; but we never say, he dwelt in a place a day or a night. Dwell may signify a residence for life or for a much shorter period, but not for a day. In scripture, it denotes a residence of seven days during the feast of tabernacles.


Ye shall dwell in booths seven days. Leviticus 23.


The word was made flesh, and dwelt among us. John 1.


2. To be in any state or condition; to continue.


To dwell in doubtful joy.


3. To continue; to be fixed in attention; to hang upon with fondness.


The attentive queen dwelt on his accents.


They stand at a distance, dwelling on his looks and language, fixed in amazement.


4. To continue long; as, to dwell on a subject, in speaking, debate or writing; to dwell on a note in music.


Dwell, as a verb transitive, is not used. We who dwell this wild, in Milton, is not a legitimate phrase.


EARNEST, a. ern'est.


1. Ardent in the pursuit of an object; eager to obtain; having a longing desire; warmly engaged or incited.


They are never more earnest to disturb us, than when they see us most earnest in this duty.


2. Ardent; warm; eager; zealous; animated; importunate; as earnest in love; earnest in prayer.


3. Intent; fixed.


On that prospect strange their earnest eyes were fixed.


4. Serious; important; that is, really intent or engaged; whence the phrase, in earnest. To be in earnest, is to be really urging or stretching towards an object; intent on a pursuit. Hence, from fixed attention, comes the sense of seriousness in the pursuit, as opposed to trifling or jest. Are you in earnest or in jest?


EARNEST, n. ern'est. Seriousness; a reality; a real event; as opposed to jesting or feigned appearance.


Take heed that this jest do not one day turn to earnest. And given in earnest what I begg'd in jest.


1. First fruits; that which is in advance, and gives promise of something to come. Early fruit may be an earnest of fruit to follow. The first success in arms may be an earnest of future success. The Christian’s peace of mind in this life is an earnest of future peace and happiness. Hence earnest or earnest-money is a first payment or deposit giving promise or assurance of full payment. Hence the practice of giving an earnest to ratify a bargain.


This sense of the word is primary, denoting that which goes before, or in advance. Thus the earnest of the spirit is given to saints, as a pledge or assurance of their future enjoyment of God's presence and favor.


ENGA'GE, v.t.


1. To make liable for a debt to a creditor; to bind one's self as surety.


2. To pawn; to stake as a pledge.


3. To enlist; to bring into a party; as, to engage men for service; to engage friends to aid in a cause.


4. To embark in an affair; as, be not hasty to engage yourself in party disputes.


5. To gain; to win and attach; to draw to.


Good nature engages every one to its possessor.


To very duty he could minds engage.


6. To unite and bind by contract or promise. Nations engage themselves to each other by treaty. The young often engage themselves to their sorrow.


7. To attract and fix; as, to engage the attention.


8. To occupy; to employ assiduously. We were engaged in conversation. The nation is engaged in war.


9. To attack in contest; to encounter. The army engaged the enemy at ten o'clock. The captain engaged the ship, at point blank distance.


ENGA'GE, v.i. To encounter; to begin to fight; to attack in conflict. The armies engaged at Marengo, in a general battle.


1. To embark in any business; to take a concern in; to undertake. Be cautious not to engage in controversy, without indispensable necessity.


2. To promise or pledge one's word; to bind one's self; as, a friend has engaged to supply the necessary funds.


ENL`ARGE, v.t. enlarj. from large. To make greater in quantity or dimensions; to extend in limits, breadth or side; to expand in bulk. Every man desires to enlarge his possessions; the prince, his dominions. and the landholder, his farm. The body is enlarged by nutrition, and a good man rejoices to enlarge the sphere of his benevolence.


God shall enlarge Japhet. Genesis 9.


1. To dilate; to expand; as with joy or love.


O ye, Corinthians, our mouth is open to you, our heart is enlarged. 2 Corinthians 6:11


2. To expand; to make more comprehensive. Science enlarges the mind.


3. To increase in appearance; to magnify to the eye; as by a glass.


4. To set at liberty; to release from confinement or pressure.


5. To extend in a discourse; to diffuse in eloquence.


They enlarged themselves on this subject.


In this application, the word is generally intransitive.

6. To augment; to increase; to make large or larger, in a general sense; a word of general application.


To enlarge the heart, may signify to open and expand in good will; to make free, liberal and charitable.


ENL`ARGE, v.i. enlarj. To grow large or larger; to extend; to dilate; to expand. A plant enlarges by growth; an estate enlarges by good management; a volume of air enlarges by rarefaction.


1. To be diffuse in speaking or writing; to expatiate. I might enlarge on this topic.


2. To exaggerate.


ENL`ARGED, pp. Increased in bulk; extended in dimension; expanded; dilated; augmented; released from confinement or straits.


ENTI'CED, pp. Incited; instigated to evil; seduced by promises or persuasions; persuaded; allured.


ERR, v.i. L. erro.


1. To wander from the right way; to deviate from the true course or purpose.


But errs not nature from this gracious end,


From burning suns when livid deaths descend?


2. To miss the right way, in morals or religion; to deviate from the path or line of duty; to stray by design or mistake.


We have erred and strayed like lost sheep.


3. To mistake; to commit error; to do wrong from ignorance or inattention. Men err in judgment from ignorance, from want of attention to facts, or from previous bias of mind.


4. To wander; to ramble.


A storm of strokes, well meant, with fury flies,


And errs about their temples, ears, and eyes.


ESTAB'LISH, v.t. L. stabilio; Heb. to set, fix, establish.


1. To set and fix firmly or unalterably; to settle permanently.


I will establish my covenant with him for an everlasting covenant. Genesis 17.


2. To found permanently; to erect and fix or settle; as, to establish a colony or an empire.


3. To enact or decree by authority and for permanence; to ordain; to appoint; as, to establish laws, regulations, institutions, rules, ordinances, &c.


4. To settle or fix; to confirm; as, to establish a person, society or corporation, in possessions or privileges.


5. To make firm; to confirm; to ratify what has been previously set or made.


Do we then make void the law through faith? God forbid; yea, we establish the law. Romans 3.


6. To settle or fix what is wavering, doubtful or weak; to confirm.


So were the churches established in the faith. Acts 16.


To the end he may establish your hearts unblamable in holiness. l Thess.3.


7. To confirm; to fulfill; to make good.


Establish thy word to thy servant. Psalms 119. 8.


To set up in the place of another and confirm.


Who go about to establish their own righteousness. Romans 10.


EXALT', v.t. egzolt'. Low L. exalto; ex and altus, high.


1. To raise high; to elevate.


2. To elevate in power, wealth, rank or dignity; as, to exalt one to a throne, to the chief magistracy, to a bishopric.


3. To elevate with joy or confidence; as, to be exalted with success or victory. We now use elate.


4. To raise with pride; to make undue pretensions to power, rank or estimation; to elevate too high or above others.


He that exalteth himself shall be abased. Luke 14. Matthew 23.


5. To elevate in estimation and praise; to magnify; to praise; to extol.


He is my father's God, and I will exalt him. Exodus 15.


6. To raise, as the voice; to raise in opposition. 2 Kings 19.


7. To elevate in diction or sentiment; to make sublime; as exalted strains.


8. In physics, to elevate; to purify; to subtilize; to refine; as, to exalt the juices or the qualities of bodies.


EX'ERCISE, n. s as z. L. exercitium, from exerceo; Eng. work.


In a general sense, any kind of work, labor or exertion of body. Hence,


1. Use; practice; the exertions and movements customary in the performance of business; as the exercise of an art, trade, occupation, or profession.


2. Practice; performance; as the exercise of religion.


3. Use; employment; exertion; as the exercise of the eyes or of the senses, or of any power of body or mind.


4. Exertion of the body, as conducive to health; action; motion, by labor, walking, riding, or other exertion.


The wise for cure on exercise depend.


5. Exertion of the body for amusement, or for instruction; the habitual use of the limbs for acquiring an art, dexterity, or grace, as in fencing, dancing, riding; or the exertion of the muscles for invigorating the body.


6. Exertion of the body and mind or faculties for improvement, as in oratory, in painting or statuary.


7. Use or practice to acquire skill; preparatory practice. Military exercises consist in using arms, in motions, marches and evolutions. Naval exercise consists in the use or management of artillery, and in the evolutions of fleets.


8. Exertion of the mind; application of the mental powers.


9. Task; that which is appointed for one to perform.


10. Act of divine worship.


11. A lesson or example for practice.


EX'ERCISE, v.t. L. exerceo.


1. In a general sense, to move; to exert; to cause to act, in any manner; as, to exercise the body or the hands; to exercise the mind, the powers of the mind, the reason or judgment.


2. To use; to exert; as, to exercise authority or power.


3. To use for improvement in skill; as, to exercise arms.


4. To exert one's powers or strength; to practice habitually; as, to exercise one's self in speaking or music.


5. To practice; to perform the duties of; as, to exercise an office.


6. To train to use; to discipline; to cause to perform certain acts, as preparatory to service; as, to exercise troops.


7. To task; to keep employed; to use efforts.


Herein do I exercise myself, to have always a conscience void of offense towards God and men. Acts 24.


8. To use; to employ.


9. To busy; to keep busy in action, exertion or employment.


10. To pain or afflict; to give anxiety to; to make uneasy.


EX'ERCISE, v.i. To use action or exertion; as, to exercise for health or amusement.


EX'ERCISED, pp. Exerted; used; trained; disciplined; accustomed; made skillful by use; employed; practiced; pained; afflicted; rendered uneasy.




1. Firm in adherence to the truth and to the duties of religion.


Be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life. Revelation 2.


2. Firmly adhering to duty; of true fidelity; loyal; true to allegiance; as a faithful subject.


3. constant in the performance of duties or services; exact in attending to commands; as a faithful servant.


4. Observant of compact, treaties, contracts, vows or other engagements; true to one's word. A government should be faithful to its treaties; individuals, to their word.


5. True; exact; in conformity to the letter and spirit; as a faithful execution of a will.


6. True to the marriage covenant; as a faithful wife or husband.


7. Conformable to truth; as a faithful narrative or representation.


8. Constant; not fickle; as a faithful lover or friend.


9. True; worthy of belief. 2 Timothy 2.


FASH'IONED, pp. Made; formed; shaped; fitted; adapted.




1. Affected by fear; feeling pain in expectation of evil; apprehensive with solicitude; afraid. I am fearful of the consequences of rash conduct. Hence,


2. Timid; timorous; wanting courage.


What man is there that is fearful and fainthearted? Deuteronomy 20.


3. Terrible; impressing fear; frightful; dreadful.


It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God. Hebrews 10.


4. Awful; to be reverenced.


O Lord, who is like thee, glorious in holiness, fearful in praises? Exodus 15.


That thou mayest fear this glorious and fearful name, Jehovah, thy God. Deuteronomy 28.




1. Timorously; in fear.


In such a night did Thisbe fearfully o'ertrip the dew.


2. Terribly; dreadfully; in a manner to impress terror.


There is a cliff, whose high and bending head looks fearfully on the confined deep.


3. In a manner to impress admiration and astonishment.


I am fearfully and wonderfully made. Psalms 139.


FEIGNED, pp. Invented; devised; imagined; assumed.


FIX'ED, pp. Settled; established; firm; fast; stable.


Fixed air, an invisible and permanently elastic fluid, heavier than common air and fatal to animal life, produced from the combustion of carbonaceous bodies, as wood or charcoal, and by artificial processes; called also aerial acid, cretaceous acid, and more generally, carbonic acid.


Fixed bodies, are those which bear a high heat without evaporation or volatilization.


Fixed stars, are such stars as always retain the same apparent position and distance with respect to each other, and are thus distinguished from planets and comets, which are revolving bodies.


Fixed oils, such as are obtained by simple pressure, and are not readily volatilized; so called in distinction from volatile or essential oils.


FRO'WARD, a. L. versus: turned or looking from.


Perverse, that is, turning from, with aversion or reluctance; not willing to yield or comply with what is required; unyielding; ungovernable; refractory; disobedient; peevish; as a froward child.


They are a very froward generation, children in whom is no fair. Deuteronomy 32.


GRIEVE, v.t. L. gravo, from gravis.


1. To give pain of mind to; to afflict; to wound the feelings. Nothing grieves a parent like the conduct of a profligate child.


2. To afflict; to inflict pain on.


For he doth not afflict willingly, nor grieve the children of men. Lamentations 3.


3. To make sorrowful; to excite regret in.


4. To offend; to displease; to provoke.


Grieve not the holy Spirit of God. Ephesians 4.


GRIEVE, v.i. To feel pain of mind or heart; to be in pain on account of an evil; to sorrow; to mourn. We grieve at the loss of friends or property. We grieve at the misfortunes of others. We grieve for our own misfortunes, follies and vices, as well as for those of our children. It is followed by at or for.


GRIE'VED, pp. Pained; afflicted; suffering sorrow.


GROSS, a. L. crassus.


1. Thick; bulky; particularly applied to animals; fat; corpulent; as a gross man; a gross body.


2. Coarse; rude; rough; not delicate; as gross sculpture.


3. Coarse, in a figurative sense; rough; mean; particularly, vulgar; obscene; indelicate; as gross language; gross jests.


4. Thick; large; opposed to fine; as wood or stone of a gross grain.


5. Impure; unrefined; as gross sensuality.


6. Great; palpable; as a gross mistake; gross injustice.


7. Coarse; large; not delicate; as gross features.


8. Thick; dense; not attenuated; not refined or pure; as a gross medium of sight; gross air; gross elements.


9. Unseemly; enormous; shameful; great; as gross corruptions; gross vices.


10. Stupid; dull.


Tell her of things that no gross ear can hear.


11. Whole; entire; as the gross sum, or gross amount, as opposed to a sum consisting of separate or specified parts.


GROSS, n. The main body; the chief part; the bulk; the mass; as the gross of the people. We now use bulk.


1. The number of twelve dozen; twelve times twelve; as a gross of bottles. It never has the plural form. We say, five gross or ten gross.


In the gross, in gross, in the bulk, or the whole undivided; all parts taken together.


By the gross, in a like sense.


Gross weight, is the weight of merchandize or goods, with the dust and dross, the bag, cask, chest, &c., in which they are contained, for which an allowance is to be made of tare and tret. This being deducted, the remainder or real weight is denominated neat or net weight. Gross weight has lately been abolished in Connecticut by statute, May, 1827.


In English law, a villain in gross, was one who did not belong to the land, but immediately to the person of the lord, and was transferrable by deed, like chattels, from one owner to another.


Advowson in gross, an advowson separated from the property of a manor,and annexed to the person of its owner.


Common in gross, is common annexed to a man's person, and not appurtenant to land.


HAUGHTY, a. hau'ty. from haught.


1. Proud and disdainful; having a high opinion of one's self, with some contempt for others; lofty and arrogant; supercilious.


His wife was a woman of a haughty and imperious nature.


…… An haughty spirit goeth before a fall. Proverbs 16.


2. Proceeding from excessive pride, or pride mingled with contempt; manifesting pride and disdain; as a haughty air or walk.


3. Proud and imperious; as a haughty nation.


4. Lofty; bold; of high hazard; as a haughty enterprise.


HEART, n. L. cor, cordis, and allied to Eng.core, or named from motion, pulsation.


1. A muscular viscus, which is the primary organ of the blood's motion in an animal body, situated in the thorax. From this organ all the arteries arise, and in it all the veins terminate. By its alternate dilatation and contraction, the blood is received from the veins, and returned through the arteries, by which means the circulation is carried on and life preserved.

2. The inner part of any thing; the middle part or interior; as the heart of a country, kingdom or empire; the heart of a town; the heart of a tree.


3. The chief part; the vital part; the vigorous or efficacious part.


4. The seat of the affections and passions, as of love, joy, grief, enmity, courage, pleasure &c.


The heart is deceitful above all things. Every imagination of the thoughts of the heart is evil continually. We read of an honest and good heart, and an evil heart of unbelief, a willing heart, a heavy heart, sorrow of heart, a hard heart, a proud heart, a pure heart. The heart faints in adversity, or under discouragement, that is, courage fails; the heart is deceived, enlarged, reproved, lifted up, fixed, established, moved, &c.


5. By a metonymy, heart is used for an affection or passion, and particularly for love.


The king's heart was towards Absalom. 2 Samuel 14.


6. The seat of the understanding; as an understanding heart. We read of men wise in heart, and slow of heart.


7. The seat of the will; hence, secret purposes, intentions or designs. There are many devices in a man's heart. The heart of kings is unsearchable. The Lord tries and searches the heart. David had it in his heart to build a house of rest for the ark.


Sometimes heart is used for the will, or determined purpose.


The heart of the sons of men is fully set in them to do evil. Ecclesiastes 8.


8. Person; character; used with respect to courage or kindess.


Cheerly, my hearts.


9. Courage; spirit; as, to take heart; to give heart; to recover heart.


10. Secret thoughts; recesses of the mind.


Michal saw king David leaping and dancing before the Lord, and she despised him in her heart. 2 Samuel 6.


11. Disposition of mind.


He had a heart to do well.


12. Secret meaning; real intention.


And then show you the heart of my message.


13. Conscience, or sense of good or ill.


Every man's heart and conscience--doth either like or disallow it.


14. Strength; power of producing; vigor; fertility. Keep the land in heart.


That the spent earth may gather heart again.


15. The utmost degree.


This gay charm--hath beguiled me to the very heart of loss.


To get or learn by heart, to commit to memory; to learn so perfectly as to be able to repeat without a copy.



To take to heart, to be much affected; also, to be zealous, ardent or solicitous about a thing; to have concern.


To lay to heart, is used nearly in the sense of the foregoing.


To set the heart on, to fix the desires on; to be very desirous of obtaining or keeping; to be very fond of.


To set the heart at rest, to make one's self quiet; to be tranquil or easy in mind.


To find in the heart, to be willing or disposed.


I find it in my heart to ask your pardon.


For my heart, for tenderness or affection.


I could not for my heart refuse his request.


Or, this phrase may signify, for my life; if my life was at stake.


I could not get him for my heart to do it.


To speak to one's heart, in Scripture, to speak kindly to; to comfort; to encourage.


To have in the heart, to purpose; to have design or intention.


A hard heart, cruelty; want of sensibility.


HEAV'Y, a. hev'y.


1. Weighty; ponderous; having great weight; tending strongly to the center of attraction; contrary to light; applied to material bodies; as a heavy stone; a heavy load.


2. Sad; sorrowful; dejected; depressed in mind.


A light wife makes a heavy husband.


So is he that singeth songs to a heavy heart. Proverbs 25.


3. Grievous; afflictive; depressing to the spirits; as heavy news; a heavy calamity.


4. Burdensome; oppressive; as heavy taxes.


Make thy father's heavy yoke--lighter. 1 Kings 12.


5. Wanting life and animation; dull.


My heavy eyes you say confess, a heart to love and grief inclined.


6. Drowsy; dull.


Their eyes were heavy. Matthew 26, Luke 9.


7. Wanting spirit or animation; destitute of life or rapidity of sentiment; dull; as a heavy writer; a heavy style.


8. Wanting activity or vivacity; indolent.


But of a heavy, dull, degenerate mind.


9. Slow; sluggish.


He walks with a heavy gait.


10. Burdensome; tedious; as heavy hours.


Time lies heavy on him who has no employment.


11. Loaded; encumbered; burdened.


He found his men heavy, and laden with booty.


12. Lying with weight on the stomach; not easily digested; as, oily food is heavy to the stomach.


13. Moist; deep; soft; miry; as heavy land; a heavy soil. We apply heavy to soft loamy or clayey land, which makes the draught of a plow or wagon difficult and laborious. So we say, a heavy road.


14. Difficult; laborious; as a heavy draught.


15. Weary; supported with pain or difficulty.


And the hands of Moses were heavy. Exodus 17.


16. Inflicting severe evils,punishments or judgments.


The hand of the Lord was heavy on them of Ashdod. 1 Samuel 5.


17. Burdensome; occasioning great care.


This thing is too heavy for thee. Exodus 18.


18. Dull; not hearing; inattentive.


Neither his ears heavy, that he cannot hear. Isaiah 59.


19. Large, as billows; swelling and rolling with great force; as a heavy sea.


20. Large in amount; as a heavy expense; a heavy debt.


21. Thick; dense; black; as a heavy cloud.


22. Violent; tempestuous; as a heavy wind or gale.


23. Large; abundant; as a heavy fall of snow or rain.


24. Great; violent; forcible; as a heavy fire of cannon or small arms.


25. Not raised by leaven or fermentation; not light; clammy; as heavy bread.


26. Requiring much labor or much expense; as a heavy undertaking.


27. Loud; as heavy thunder.


Heavy metal, in military affairs, signifies large guns, carrying balls of a large size, or it is applied to large balls themselves.


HOT, a.


1. Having sensible heat; opposed to cold; as a hot stove or fire; a hot cloth; hot liquors. Hot expresses more than warm.


2. Ardent in temper; easily excited or exasperated; vehement.


Achilles is impatient, hot and revengeful.


3. Violent; furious; as a hot engagement or assault.


4. Eager; animated;; brisk; keen; as a hot pursuit, or a person hot in a pursuit.


5. Lustful; lewd.


6. Acrid; biting; stimulating; pungent; as hot as mustard or pepper.


HYPOCRIT'ICAL, a. Simulating; counterfeiting a religions character; assuming a false and deceitful appearance; applied to persons.


1. Dissembling; concealing one's real character or motives.


2. Proceeding from hypocrisy, or marking hypocrisy; as a hypocritical face or look.


IMPEN'ITENT, a. Not penitent; not repenting of sin; not contrite; obdurate; of a hard heart.


They died Impenitent.


IMPEN'ITENT, n. One who does not repent; a hardened sinner.


INCLI'NE, v.t. L. inclino; in and clino; Eng. to lean.


1. To lean; to deviate from an erect or parallel line toward any object; to tend. Converging lines incline toward each other. A road inclines to the north or south. Connecticut river runs south, inclining in some part of its course to the west, and below middletown, it inclines to the east.


2. To lean; in a moral sense; to have a propension; to be disposed; to have some wish or desire.


Their hearts inclined to follow Abimelech. Judges 9.


3. To have an appetite; to be disposed; as, to be inclined to eat.


INCLI'NE, v.t. To cause to deviate from an erect, perpendicular or parallel line; to give a leaning to; as, incline the column or post to the east; incline your head to the right.


1. To give a tendency or propension to the will or affections; to turn; to dispose.


Incline our hearts to keep this law.


Incline my heart to thy testimonies. Ps.119.


2. To bend; to cause to stoop or bow; as, to incline the head or the body in acts of reverence or civility.


INCLI'NED, pp. Having a leaning or tendency; disposed.


INIQ'UITY, n. L. iniquitas; in and oequitas, equity.


1. Injustice; unrighteousness; a deviation from rectitude; as the iniquity of war; the iniquity of the slave trade.


2. Want of rectitude in principle; as a malicious prosecution originating in the iniquity of the author.


3. A particular deviation from rectitude; a sin or crime; wickedness; any act of injustice.


Your iniquities have separated between you and your God. Isaiah 59.


4. Original want of holiness or depravity.


I was shapen in iniquity. Psalms 51.


INJUS'TICE, n. L. injustitia; in and justitia,justice.


1. Iniquity; wrong; any violation of another's rights, as fraud in contracts, or the withholding of what is due. It has a particular reference to an unequal distribution of rights, property or privileges among persons who have equal claims.


2. The withholding from another merited praise, or ascribing to him unmerited blame.


INTEG'RITY, n. L. integritas, from integer.


1. Wholeness; entireness; unbroken state. The constitution of the U. States guaranties to each state the integrity of its territories. The contracting parties guarantied the integrity of the empire.


2. The entire, unimpaired state of any thing, particularly of the mind; moral soundness or purity; incorruptness; uprightness; honesty. Integrity comprehends the whole moral character, but has a special reference to uprightness in mutual dealings, transfers of property, and agencies for others.


The moral grandeur of independent integrity is the sublimest thing in nature, before which the pomp of eastern magnificence and the splendor of conquest are odious as well as perishable.


3. Purity; genuine, unadulterated, unimpaired state; as the integrity of language.


ISSUE, n. ish'u.


1. The act of passing or flowing out; a moving out of any enclosed place; egress; applied to water or other fluid, to smoke, to a body of men, &c. We say, an issue of water from a pipe, from a spring, or from a river; an issue of blood from a wound, of air from a bellows; an issue of people from a door or house.


2. A sending out; as the issue of an order from a commanding officer or from a court; the issue of money from a treasury.


3. Event; consequence; end or ultimate result. Our present condition will be best for us in the issue.


4. Passage out; outlet.


To God the Lord belong the issues from death. Psalms 68.


5. Progeny; a child or children; offspring; as, he had issue, a son; and we speak of issue of the whole blood or half blood. A man dies without issue.


6. Produce of the earth, or profits of land, tenements or other property. A conveyed to B all his right to a term for years, with all the issues, rents and profits.


7. In surgery, a fontanel; a little ulcer made in some part of an animal body, to promote discharges.


8. Evacuation; discharge; a flux or running. Leviticus 12, Matthew 9.

9. In law, the close or result of pleadings; the point of matter depending in suit, on which the parties join, and put the case to trial by a jury.


10. A giving out from a repository; delivery; as an issue of rations or provisions from a store, or of powder from a magazine.


KNIT, v.t. nit. pret. and pp. knit or knitted. L. nodo,whence nodus, Eng. knot.


1. To unite, as threads by needles; to connect in a kind of net-work; as, to knit a stocking.


2. To unite closely; as, let our hearts be knit together in love.


3. To join or cause to grow together.


Nature cannot knit the bones, while the parts are under a discharge.


4. To tie; to fasten.


And he saw heaven opened, and a certain vessel descending to him, as it were a great sheet knit at the four corners. Acts 10.


5. To draw together; to contract; as, to knit the brows.


KNIT, v.i. nit. To unite or interweave by needles.


1. To unite closely; to grow together. Broken bones will in time knit and become sound.


LIFT'ED, pp. Raised; elevated; swelled with pride.


LOWLY, a. low and like.


1. Having a low esteem of one's own worth; humble; meek; free from pride.


Take my yoke upon you and learn of me, for I am meek and lowly in heart. Matthew 11.


He scorneth the scorners; but he giveth grace to the lowly. Proverbs 3.


2. Mean; low; wanting dignity or rank.


One common right the great and lowly claim.


3. Not lofty or sublime; humble.


These rural poems, and their lowly strain.


4. Not high; not elevated in place.


LOWLY, adv.


1. Humbly; meekly; modestly.


Be lowly wise.


2. Meanly; in a low condition; without grandeur or dignity.


I will show myself highly fed and lowly taught.


MAGNIFY, v.t. L. magnifico; magnus, great, and facio, to make.


1. To make great or greater; to increase the apparent dimensions of a body. A convex lens magnifies the bulk of a body to the eye.


2. To make great in representation; to extol; to exalt in description or praise. The embassador magnified the king and queen.


3. To extol; to exalt; to elevate; to raise in estimation.


Thee that day Thy thunders magnified.


The Lord magnified Solomon exceedingly. 1 Chronicles 29.


To magnify one's self, to raise in pride and pretensions.


He shall magnify in his heart. Daniel 8.


MED'ITATE, v.i. L. meditor.


1. To dwell on any thing in thought; to contemplate; to study; to turn or revolve any subject in the mind; appropriately but not exclusively used of pious contemplation, or a consideration of the great truths of religion.


His delight is in the law of the Lord, and in his law doth he meditate day and night. Psalms 1.


2. To intend; to have in contemplation.


I meditate to pass the remainder of life in a state of undisturbed repose.


MED'ITATE, v.t. To plan by revolving in the mind; to contrive; to intend.


Some affirmed that I meditated a war.


1. To think on; to revolve in the mind.


Blessed is the man that doth meditate good things.


MEEK, a. L. mucus; Eng. mucilage; Heb. to melt.


1. Mild of temper; soft; gentle; not easily provoked or irritated; yielding; given to forbearance under injuries.


Now the man Moses was very meek, above all men. Numers 12.


2. Appropriately,humble, in an evangelical sense; submissive to the divine will; not proud, self-sufficient or refractory; not peevish and apt to complain of divine dispensations. Christ says, "Learn of me, for I am meek and lowly in heart, and ye shall find rest to your souls." Matt.11.


Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth. Matthew .5.


MELT, v.t. Eng.smelt,smalt. We have in these words decisive evidence that s, in smelten, &c. is a prefix. Melt, in English, is regular, forming melted for its past tense and passive participle. The old participle molten, is used only as an adjective.


1. To dissolve; to make liquid; to liquefy; to reduce from a solid to a liquid or flowing state by heat; as, to melt wax, tallow or lead; to melt ice or snow.


2. To dissolve; to reduce to first principles.


3. To soften to love or tenderness.


For pity melts the mind to love.

4. To waste away; to dissipate.


In general riot melted down thy youth.


5. To dishearten. Joshua 14.


MELT, v.i. To become liquid; to dissolve; to be changed from a fixed or solid to a flowing state.


And whiter snow in minutes melts away.


1. To be softened to love, pity, tenderness or sympathy; to become tender, mild or gentle.


Melting with tenderness and mild compassion.


2. To be dissolved; to lose substance.


--And what seem'd corporal, Melted as breath into the wind.


3. To be subdued by affliction; to sink into weakness.


My soul melteth for heaviness--strengthen thou me. Psalms 19.


4. To faint; to be discouraged or disheartened.


As soon as we heard these things, our heart melted. Joshua 2.


MIND, n. L. reminiscor; L. mens; Gr. memory, mention, to remember, mind, ardor of mind, vehemence; anger. Mind signifies properly intention, a reaching or inclining forward to an object, from the primary sense of extending, stretching or inclining, or advancing eagerly, pushing or setting forward, whence the Greek sense of the word, in analogy with the Teutonic mod, moed, muth, mind, courage, spirit, mettle. So L. animus, animosus.


1. Intention; purpose; design.

The sacrifice of the wicked is abomination; how much more, when he bringeth it with a wicked mind. Proverbs 21.


2. Inclination; will; desire; a sense much used, but expressing less than settled purpose; as in the common phrases, "I wish to know your mind;" "let me know your mind;" "he had a mind to go;" "he has a partner to his mind."


3. Opinion; as, to express one's mind. We are of one mind.


4. Memory; remembrance; as, to put one in mind; to call to mind; the fact is out of my mind; time out of mind. From the operations of the intellect in man,this word came to signify.


5. The intellectual or intelligent power in man; the understanding; the power that conceives, judges or reasons.


I fear I am not in my perfect mind.


So we speak of a sound mind, a disordered mind, a weak mind, a strong mind, with reference to the active powers of the understanding; and in a passive sense, it denotes capacity, as when we say, the mind cannot comprehend a subject.


6. The heart or seat of affection.


Which were a grief of mind to Isaac and Rebekah. Genesis 26.

7. The will and affection; as readiness of mind. Acts 17.


8. The implanted principle of grace. Romans 7.


MIND, v.t. To attend to; to fix the thoughts on; to regard with attention.


Cease to request me; let us mind our way.


Mind not high things. Romans 12.


1. To attend to or regard with submission; to obey. His father told him to desist, but he would not mind him.


2. To put in mind; to remind.


3. To intend; to mean.


MIND, v.i. To be inclined or disposed to incline.


When one of them mindeth to go into rebellion.


MIS'CHIEVOUS, a. Harmful; hurtful; injurious; making mischief; of persons; as a mischievous man or disposition.


1. Hurtful; noxious; as a mischievous thing.


2. Inclined to do harm; as a mischievous boy.


MUSE, n. s as z. L. musa.


1. Properly, song; but in usage, the deity or power of poetry. Hence poets in modern times, as in ancient, invoke the aid of the Muse or Muses, or in other words, the genius of poetry.


Granville commands; your aid, O Muses, bring,


What Muse for Granville can refuse to sing?


2. Deep thought; close attention or contemplation which abstracts the minds from passing scenes; hence sometimes, absence of mind.


As in great muse, no word to creature spake.


He was fill'd


With admiration and deep muse to hear


Of things so high and strange.


MUSE, v.i. s as z. L. musso and mussito, to mutter or murmur, to demur, to be silent. The Greek signifies to press, or utter sound with the lips compressed. The latter verb belongs to a sound uttered through the nose or with close lips, or of the same family, L. mussitatio. The word then primarily denotes what we call humming, to hum, as persons do when idle, or alone and steadily occupied.


1. To ponder; to think closely; to study in silence.


He mused upon some dangerous plot.


I muse on the works of thy hands. Psalms 143.


2. To be absent in mind; to be so occupied in study or contemplation, as not to observe passing scenes or things present.


3. To wonder.


Do not muse of me.


MUSE, v.t. To think on; to meditate on.


NOURISHED, pp. Fed; supplied with nutriment; caused to grow.


OBE'DIENT, a. L. obediens. Submissive to authority; yielding compliance with commands, orders or injunctions; performing what is required, or abstaining from what is forbid.


The chief his orders gives; the obedient band, with due observance, wait the chief's command.


OB'STINATE, a. L. obstinatus.


1. Stubborn; pertinaciously adhering to an opinion or purpose; fixed firmly in resolution; not yielding to reason, arguments or other means.


I have known great cures done by obstinate resolutions of drinking no wine.


No ass so meek, no ass os obstinate.


2. Not yielding or not easily subdued or removed; as an obstinate fever; obstinate obstructions; an obstinate cough.




1. To charge or load to excess; to cloy; to oppress.


The heavy load of abundance with which we overcharge nature -


2. To crowd too much.


Our language is overcharged with consonants.


3. To burden.


4. To fill to excess; to surcharge; as, to overcharge the memory.


5. To load with too great a charge, as a gun.


6. To charge too much; to enter in an account more than is just.




1. To overspread or crush beneath something violent and weighty, that covers or encompasses the whole; as, to overwhelm with waves.


2. To immerse and bear down; in a figurative sense; as, to be overwhelmed with cares, afflictions or business.


3. To overlook gloomily.


4. To put over. Not used.

PAIN, n. L. paena; Gr. penalty, and pain, labor.


1. An uneasy sensation in animal bodies, of any degree from slight uneasiness to extreme distress or torture, proceeding from pressure, tension or spasm, separation of parts by violence, or any derangement of functions. Thus violent pressure or stretching of a limb gives pain; inflammation produces pain; wounds, bruises and incisions give pain.


2. Labor; work; toil; laborious effort. In this sense, the plural only is used; as, to take pains; to be at the pains.


High without taking pains to rise.


The same with pains we gain, but lose with ease.


3. Labor; toilsome effort; task; in the singular. Not now used.


4. Uneasiness of mind; disquietude; anxiety; solicitude for the future; grief, sorrow for the past. We suffer pain when we fear or expect evil; we feel pain at the loss of friends or property.


5. The throws or distress of travail or childbirth.


She bowed herself and travailed, for her pains came upon her. 1 Samuel 4.


6. Penalty; punishment suffered or denounced; suffering or evil inflicted as a punishment for a crime, or annexed to the commission of a crime.


None shall presume to fly under pain of death.


Interpose, on pain of my displeasure.


PAIN, v.t.


1. To make uneasy or to disquiet; to cause uneasy sensations in the body, of any degree of intensity; to make simply uneasy, or to distress, to torment. The pressure of fetters may pain a limb; the rack pains the body.


2. To afflict; to render uneasy in mind; to disquiet; to distress. We are pained at the death of a friend; grief pains the heart; we are often pained with fear or solicitude.


I am pained at my very heart. Jeremiah 4.


3. Reciprocally, to pain one's self, to labor; to make toilsome efforts. Little used.


PERCE'IVE, v.t. L. percipio; per and capio, to take.


1. To have knowledge or receive impressions of external objects through the medium or instrumentality of the senses or bodily organs; as, to perceive light or color; to perceive the cold or ice or the taste of honey.


2. To know; to understand; to observe.


Till we ourselves see it with our own eyes, and perceive it by our own understanding, we are in the dark.


3. To be affected by; to receive impressions from.


The upper regions of the air perceive the collection of the matter of tempests before the air below.


PERVERSE, a. pervers'. L. perversus. See Pervert.


1. Literally, turned aside; hence, distorted from the right.


2. Obstinate in the wrong; disposed to be contrary; stubborn; untractable.


To so perverse a sex all grace is vain.


3. Cross; petulant; peevish; disposed to cross and vex.


I'll frown and be perverse, and say thee nay.


PERVERT', v.t. L. perverto; per and verto, to turn.


1. To turn from truth, propriety, or from its proper purpose; to distort from its true use or end; as, to pervert reason by misdirecting it; to pervert the laws by misinterpreting and misapplying them; to pervert justice; to pervert the meaning of an author; to pervert nature; to pervert truth.


2. To turn from the right; to corrupt.


He in the serpent had perverted Eve.


PON'DER, v.t. L. pondero, from pondo, pondus, a pound; pendeo, pendo, to weigh.


1. To weigh in the mind; to consider and compare the circumstances or consequences of an event, or the importance of the reasons for or against a decision.


Mary kept all these things, and pondered them in her heart. Luke 2.


2. To view with deliberation; to examine.


Ponder the path of thy feet. Proverbs 4.


The Lord pondereth the hearts. Proverbs 21.


To ponder on, is sometimes used, but is not be to countenanced.


PREPA'RE, v.t. L. paro.


1. In a general sense, to fit, adapt or qualify for a particular purpose, end, use, service or state, by any means whatever. We prepare ground for seed by tillage; we prepare cloth for use by dressing; we prepare medicines by pulverization, mixture, &c.; we prepare young men for college by previous instruction; men are prepared for professions by suitable study; holiness of heart is necessary to prepare men for the enjoyment of happiness with holy beings.


2. To make ready; as, to prepare the table for entertaining company.


3. To provide; to procure as suitable; as, to prepare arms, ammunition and provisions for troops; to prepare ships for defense.


Absalom prepared him chariots and horses, and fifty men to run before him. 2 Samuel 15.


4. To set; to establish.


The Lord hath prepared his throne in the heavens. Psalms 103.


5. To appoint.


It shall be given to them for whom it is prepared. Matthew 20.


6. To guide, direct or establish. 1 Chronicles 29.


PREPA'RE, v.i. To make all things ready; to put things in suitable order; as, prepare for dinner.


1. To take the necessary previous measures.


Dido preparing to kill herself.


2. To make one's self ready.


Prepare to meet thy God, O Israel. Amos 4.


PRESU'ME, v.t. s as z. L. proesumo; proe, before,and sumo, to take. To take or suppose to be true or entitled to belief, without examination or positive proof, or on the strength of probability. We presume that a man is honest, who has not been known to cheat or deceive; but in this we are sometimes mistaken. In many cases, the law presumes full payment where positive evidence of it cannot be produced.


We not only presume it may be so, but we actually find it so.


In cases of implied contracts, the law presumes that a man has covenanted or contracted to do what reason and justice dictate.


PRESU'ME, v.i. To venture without positive permission; as, we may presume too far.


1. To form confident or arrogant opinions; with on or upon, before the cause of confidence.


This man presumes upon his parts.


I will not presume so far upon myself.


2. To make confident or arrogant attempts.


In that we presume to see what is meet and convenient, better than God himself.


3. It has on or upon sometimes before the thing supposed.


Luther presumes upon the gift of continency.


It is sometimes followed by of, but improperly.


PRICK, v.t.


1. To pierce with a sharp pointed instrument or substance; as, to prick one with a pin, a needle, a thorn or the like.


2. To erect a pointed thing, or with an acuminated point; applied chiefly to the ears, and primarily to the pointed ears of an animal. The horse pricks his ears, or pricks up his ears.


3. To fix by the point; as, to prick a knife into a board.


4. To hang on a point.


The cooks prick a slice on a prong of iron.


5. To designate by a puncture or mark.


Some who are pricked for sheriffs, and are fit, set out of the bill.


6. To spur; to goad; to incite; sometimes with on or off.


My duty pricks me on to utter that which no worldly good should draw from me.


But how if honor prick me off.


7. To affect with sharp pain; to sting with remorse.


When they heard this, they were pricked in their hearts. Acts  2, Psalms 73.


8. To make acid or pungent to the taste; as, wine is pricked.


9. To write a musical composition with the proper notes on a scale.


10. In seamen's language, to run a middle seam through the cloth of a sail.


To prick a chart, is to trace a ship's course on a chart.


PRICK, v.i. To become acid; as, cider pricks in the rays of the sun.


1. To dress one's self for show.


2. To come upon the spur; to shoot along.


Before each van prick forth the airy knights.


3. To aim at a point, mark or place.




1. A slender pointed instrument or substance, which is hard enough to pierce the skin; a goad; a spur.


It is hard for thee to kick against the pricks. Acts  9.


2. Sharp stinging pain; remorse.


3. A spot or mark at which archers aim.


4. A point; a fixed place.


5. A puncture or place entered by a point.


6. The print of a hare on the ground.


7. In seamen's language, a small roll; as a prick of spun yarn; a prick of tobacco.


PRICK'ED, pp. Pierced with a sharp point; spurred; goaded; stung with pain; rendered acid or pungent; marked; designated.


PROF'ITED, pp. Benefited; advanced in interest or happiness; improved.


What is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world and lose his own soul? Matthew 16.




1. Having inordinate self-esteem; possessing a high or unreasonable conceit of one's own excellence, either of body or mind. A man may be proud of his person, of his talents, of his accomplishments or of his achievements. He may be proud of any thing to which he bears some relation. He may be proud of his country, his government, his equipage, or of whatever may, by association, gratify his esteem of himself. He may even be proud of his religion or of his church. He conceives that any thing excellent or valuable, in which he has a share, or to which he stands related, contributes to his own importance, and this conception exalts his opinion of himself. Proud is followed by of, before the object, supra.


2. Arrogant; haughty; supercilious.


A foe so proud will not the weaker seek.


3. Daring; presumptuous.


By his understanding he smiteth through the proud. Job.26.


4. Lofty of mien; grand of person; as a proud steed.


5. Grand, lofty; splendid; magnificent.


Storms of stones from the proud temple's height.


6. Ostentatious; grand; as proud titles.


7. Splendid; exhibiting grandeur and distinction; exciting pride; as a proud day for Rome.


8. Excited by the animal appetite; applied particularly to the female of the canine species.


9. Fungous; as proud flesh.


PROVOCA'TION, n. L.provacatio. See Provoke.


1. Any thing that excites anger; the cause of resentment. 1 Kings 21.


2. The act of exciting anger.


3. An appeal to a court or judge. A Latinism, not now used.


4. Incitement. Not used.


PUR'POSE, n. L. propositum, propono; pro, before,and pono, to set or place.


1. That which a person sets before himself as an object to be reached or accomplished; the end or aim to which the view is directed in any plan, measure or exertion. We believe the Supreme Being created intelligent beings for some benevolent and glorious purpose, and if so, how glorious and benevolent must be his purpose in the plan of redemption! The ambition of men is generally directed to one of two purposes, or to both; the acquisition of wealth or of power. We build houses for the purpose of shelter; we labor for the purpose of subsistence.


2. Intention; design. This sense, however, is hardly to be distinguished from the former; as purpose always includes the end in view.


Every purpose is established by counsel. Proverbs 20.


Being predestinated according to the purpose of him who worketh all things after the counsel of his own will. Ephesians 1.


3. End; effect; consequence, good or bad. What good purpose will this answer? We sometimes labor to no purpose. Men often employ their time, talents and money for very evil purposes.


To what purpose is this waste? Matthew 26.


4. Instance; example. Not in use.


5. Conversation. Not in use.


Of purpose, on purpose, with previous design; with the mind directed to that object. On purpose is more generally used, but the true phrase is of purpose.


PUR'POSE,v.t. To intend; to design; to resolve; to determine on some end or object to be accomplished.


I have purposed it, I will also do it. Isaiah 46, Ephesians 3.


Paul purposed in the spirit, when he had passed through Macedonia and Achaia, to go to Jerusalem. Acts 19.


REBEL'LIOUS, a. Engaged in rebellion; renouncing the authority and dominion of the government to which allegiance is due; traitorously resisting government or lawful authority. Deuteronomy 9, Deuteronomy 21.


REINS, n. plu. L. ren, renes.


1. The kidneys; the lower part of the back.


2. In Scripture, the inward parts; the heart, or seat of the affections and passions. Ps. 73.


REPROACH, v.t. L. prox, in proximus.


1. To censure in terms of opprobrium or contempt.


Mezentius with his ardor warm'd his fainting friends, reproach'd their shameful flight, repell'd the victors.


2. To charge with a fault in severe language.


That shame there sit not, and reproach us as unclean.


3. To upbraid; to suggest blame for any thing. A man's conscience will reproach him for a criminal, mean or unworthy action.


4. To treat with scorn or contempt. Luke 6.




1. Censure mingled with contempt or derision; contumelious or opprobrious language towards any person; abusive reflections; as foul-mouthed reproach.


2. Shame; infamy; disgrace.


Give not thine heritage to reproach. Joel 2. Isaiah 4.


3. Object of contempt, scorn or derision.


Come, and let us build up the wall of Jerusalem, that we may be no more a reproach. Nehemiah 2.


4. That which is the cause of shame or disgrace. Gen. 30.


REPROOF', n. from reprove.


1. Blame expressed to the face; censure for a fault; reprehension.


Those best can bear reproof, who merit praise.


He that hateth reproof is brutish. Proverbs 12.


2. Blame cast; censure directed to a person.


REPROVE, v.t. L. reprobo; re and probo, to prove.


1. To blame; to censure.


I will not reprove thee for thy sacrifices – Psalms 50.


2. To charge with a fault to the face; to chide; to reprehend. Luke 3.


3. To blame for; with of; as, to reprove one of laziness.


4. To convince of a fault, or to make it manifest. John 16.


5. To refute; to disprove. Not in use.


6. To excite a sense of guilt. The heart or conscience reproves us.


7. To manifest silent disapprobation or blame.


The vicious cannot bear the presence of the good, whose very looks reprove them, and whose life is a severe, though silent admonition.


RETA'IN, v.t. L. retineo; re and teneo, to hold.


1. To hold or keep in possession; not to lose or part with or dismiss. The memory retains ideas which facts or arguments have suggested to the mind.


They did not like to retain God in their knowledge. Romans 1.


2. To keep, as an associate; to keep from departure.


Whom I would have retained with me. Philemon 13.


3. To keep back; to hold.


An executor may retain a debt due to him from the testator.


4. To hold from escape. Some substances retain heat much longer than others. Metals readily receive and transmit heat, but do not long retain it. Seek cloths that retain their color.


5. To keep in pay; to hire.


A Benedictine convent has now retained the most learned father of their order to write in its defense.


6. To engage; to employ by a fee paid; as, to retain a counselor.

RETA'IN, v.i.


1. To belong to; to depend on; as coldness mixed with a somewhat languid relish retaining to bitterness.


Not in use. We now use pertain.


2. To keep; to continue. Not in use.


REVI'VE, v.i. L. revivisco; re and vivo, to live.


1. To return to life; to recover life.


The soul of the child came into him again, and he revived. 1Kings 17, Romans 14.


2. To recover new life or vigor; to be reanimated after depression.


When he saw the wagons which Joseph had sent to carry him, the spirit of Jacob their father revived. Genesis 45.


3. To recover from a state of neglect, oblivion, obscurity or depression. Learning revived in Europe after the middle ages.


4. In chemistry, to recover its natural state, as a metal.


Sin revives, when the conscience is awakened by a conviction of guilt. Romans 7.


REVI'VE, v.t.


1. To bring again to life; to reanimate.


2. To raise from languor, depression or discouragement; to rouse; as, to revive the spirits or courage.


3. To renew; to bring into action after a suspension; as, to revive a project or scheme that had been laid aside.


4. To renew in the mind or memory; to recall.


The mind has the power in many cases to revive ideas or perceptions, which it has once had.


5. To recover from a state of neglect or depression; as, to revive letters or learning.


6. To recomfort; to quicken; to refresh with joy or hope.


Wilt thou not revive us again? Psalms 85.


7. To bring again into notice.


Revive the libels born to die.


8. In chemistry, to restore or reduce to its natural state or to its metallic state; as, to revive a metal after calcination.


REVI'VED, pp. Brought to life; reanimated; renewed; recovered; quickened; cheered; reduced to a metallic state.




1. Changing sides; deserting.


2. Disclaiming allegiance and subjection to a prince or state.


3. Rejecting the authority of God.


4. a. Doing violence, as to the feelings; exciting abhorrence.


SANC'TIFY, v.t. Low L. sanctifico; from sanctus, holy, and facio, to make.


1. In a general sense, to cleanse, purify or make holy.


2. To separate, set apart or appoint to a holy, sacred or religious use.


God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it. Genesis 2.


So under the Jewish dispensation, to sanctify the altar, the temple, the priests, &c.


3. To purify; to prepare for divine service, and for partaking of holy things. Ex. 19.


4. To separate, ordain and appoint to the work of redemption and the government of the church. John 10.


5. To cleanse from corruption; to purify from sin; to make holy be detaching the affections from the world and its defilements, and exalting them to a supreme love to God.


Sanctify them through thy truth; thy word is truth. John 17, Ephesians 5.


6. To make the means of holiness; to render productive of holiness or piety.


Those judgments of God are the more welcome, as a means which his mercy hath sanctified so to me, as to make me repent of that unjust act.


7. To make free from guilt.


That holy man amaz'd at what he saw, made haste to sanctify the bliss by law.


8. To secure from violation.


Truth guards the poet, sanctifies the line.


To sanctify God, to praise and celebrate him as a holy being; to acknowledge and honor his holy majesty, and to reverence his character and laws. Is. 8.


God sanctifies himself or his name, by vindicating his honor from the reproaches of the wicked, and manifesting his glory. Ezekiel 36.


SET, v.t. pret. pp. set. L. sedo; to compose, as a book, to dispose or put in order, to establish, found or institute, to possess, to cease; L. sedo, sedeo and sido, coinciding with sit, but all of one family. From the Norman orthography of this word, we have assess, assise. See Assess. Heb. Ch. to set, to place.


1. To put or place; to fix or cause to rest in a standing posture. We set a house on a wass of stone; we set a book on a shelf. In this use, set differs from lay; we set a thing on its end or basis; we lay it on its side.


2. To put or place in its proper or natural posture. We set a chest or trunk on its bottom, not its end; we set a bedstead or a table on its feet or laeg.


3. To put, place or fix in any situation. God set the sun, moon and stars in the firmament.


I do set my bow in the cloud. Genesis 9.


4. To put into any condition or state.


The Lord the God will set thee on high. Dueteronomy 28.


I am come to set a man at variance against his father. Matthew 10.


So we say, to set in order, to set at ease, to set to work, or at work.


5. To put; to fix; to attach to.


The Lord set a mark upon Cain. Genesis 4.


So we say, to set a label on a vial or a bale.


6. To fix; to render motionless; as, the eyes are set, the jaws are set.


7. To put or fix, as a price. We set a price on a house, farm or horse.


8. To fix; to state by some rule.


The gentleman spoke with a set gesture and countenance. Carew.


The town of Berne has handsome fountains planted and set distances from one end of the street to the other. Addison.


9. To regulate or adjust; as, to set a timepiece by the sun.


He sets judgement by his passion. Prior.


10. To fit to music; to adapt with notes; as, to set the words of a psalm to music.




1. Separate; one; only; individual; consisting of one only; as a single star; a single city; a single act.


2. Particular; individual. No single man is born with a right of controlling the opinions of all the rest.


3. Uncompounded. Simple ideas are opposed to complex, and single to compound.


4. Alone; having no companion or assistant. Who single hast maintain'd against revolted multitudes the cause of truth.


5. Unmarried; as a single man; a single woman.


6. Not double; not complicated; as a single thread; a single strand of a rope.


7. Performed with one person or antagonist on a side, or with one person only opposed to another; as a single fight; a single combat.


8. Pure; simple; incorrupt; unbiased; having clear vision of divine truth. Matthew 6.


9. Small; weak; silly


10. In botany, a single flower is when there is only one on a stem, and in common usage, one not double.




1. The state of being one only or separate from all others; the opposite of doubleness, complication or multiplicity.


2. Simplicity; sincerity; purity of mind or purpose; freedom from duplicity; as singleness of belief; singleness of heart.


SMITE, v.t. pret. smote; pp. smitten, smil. This verb is the L. mitto.


1. To strike; to throw, drive or force against, as the fist or hand, a stone or a weapon; to reach with a blow or a weapon; as, to smite one with the fist; to smite with a rod or with a stone. Whoever shall smite thee on the right cheek, turn to him the other also. Matt. 5.


2. To kill; to destroy the life of by beating or by weapons of any kind; as, to smite one with the sword, or with an arrow or other engine. David smote Goliath with a sling and a stone. The Philistines were often smitten with great slaughter. This word, like slay, usually or always signification, that of beating, striking, the primitive mode of killing. We never apply it to the destruction of life by poison, by accident or by legal execution.


3. To blast; to destroy life; as by a stroke or by something sent.


The flax and the barley were smitten. Exodus 9.


4. To afflict; to chasten; to punish. Let us not mistake God's goodness, nor imagine, because he smites us, that we are forsaken by him.


5. To strike or affect with passion. See what the charms that smite the simple heart. Smit with the love of sister arts we came.




1. An instrument for catching animals, particularly fowls, by the leg. It consists of a cord or string with slip-knots, in which the leg is entangled. A snare is not a net.


2. Any thing by which one is entangled and brought into trouble. I Corinthians 7.


A fool's lip are the snare of his soul. Proverbs 18.


SNARE, v.t. To catch with a snare; to ensnare; to entangle; to bring into unexpected evil, perplexity or danger. The wicked is snared in the work of his own hands. Ps. 9.


SOUL, n.


1. The spiritual, rational and immortal substance in man, which distinguishes him from brutes; that part of man which enables him to think and reason, and which renders him a subject of moral government. The immortality of the soul is a fundamental article of the Christian system. Such is the nature of the human soul that it must have a God, an object of supreme affection.


2. The understanding; the intellectual principle. The eyes of our soul then only begin to see, when our bodily eye are closing.


3. Vital principle. Thou son, of this great world both eye and soul.


4. Spirit; essence; chief part; as charity, the soul of all the virtues. Emotion is the soul of eloquence.


5. Life; animation principle or part; as, an able commander is the soul of an army.


6. Internal power. There is some soul of goodness in things evil.


7. A human being; a person. There was no a soul present. In Paris there are more than seven hundred thousand souls. London, Westminster, Southwark and the suburbs, are said to contain twelve hundred thousand souls.


8. Animal life. To deliver their soul from death, and to keep them alive in famine. Psalms 33:19


9. Active power. And heaven would fly before the driving soul.


10. Spirit; courage; fire; grandeur of mind. That he wants caution he must needs confess, but not a soul to give our arms success.


11. Generosity; nobleness of mind; a colloquial use.


12. An intelligent being. Every soul in heaven shall bend the knee.


13. Heart; affection. The soul of Jonathan was knit with the soul of David. I Samuel 18.


14. In Scripture, appetite; as the full soul; the hungry soul. Proverbs 27. Job 33.


15. A familiar compellation of a person, but often expressing some qualities of the mind; as alas, poor soul; he was a good soul.


SOUND, a. L. sanus.


1. Entire; unbroken; not shaky, split or defective; as sound timber.


2. Undecayed; whole; perfect, or not defective; as sound fruit; a sound apple or melon.


3. Unbroken; not bruised or defective; not lacerated or decayed; as a sound limb.


4. Not carious; not decaying; as a sound tooth.


5. Not broken or decayed; not defective; as a sound ship.


6. Whole; entire; unhurt; unmutilated; as a sound body.


7. Healthy; not diseased; not being in a morbid state; having all the organs complete and in perfect action; as a sound body; sound health; a sound constitution; a sound man; a sound horse.


8. Founded in truth; firm; strong; valid; solid; that cannot be overthrown or refuted; as sound reasoning; a sound argument; a sound objection; sound doctrine; sound principles.


9. Right; correct; well founded; free form error; orthodox. II Timothy 1.


Let my heart be sound in thy statutes. Psalms 119.


10. Heavy; laid on with force; as sound strokes; a sound beating.

11. Founded in right and law; legal; valid; not defective; that cannot be overthrown; as a sound title to land; sound justice.


12. Fast; profound; undisturbed; as sound sleep.


13. Perfect, as intellect; not broken or defective; not enfeebled by age or accident; not wild or wandering; not deranged; as a sound mind; a sound understanding or reason.


SPIR'IT, n. L. spiritus, from spiro, to breathe, to blow. The primary sense is to rush or drive.


1. Primarily, wind; air in motion; hence, breath. All bodies have spirits and pneumatical parts within them. This sense is now unusual.


2. Animal excitement, or the effect of it; life; ardor; fire; courage; elevation or vehemence of mind. The troops attacked the enemy with great spirit. The young man has the spirit of youth. He speaks or act with spirit. Spirits, in the plural, is used in nearly a like sense. The troops began to recover their spirits.


3. Vigor of intellect; genius. His wit, his beauty and his spirit. The noblest spirit or genius cannot deserve enough of mankind to pretend to the esteem of heroic virtue.


4. Temper; disposition of mind, habitual or temporary; as a man of a generous spirit, or of a revengeful spirit; the ornament of a meek and quiet spirit. Let us go to the house of God in the spirit of prayer.


5. The soul of man; the intelligent, immaterial and immortal part of human beings. See Soul. the spirit shall return to God that gave it. Ecclesiastes 12.


6. An immaterial intelligent substance. Spirit is a substance in which thinking, knowing, doubting, and a power of moving do subsist. Hence,


7. An immaterial intelligent being. By which he went and preached to the spirit in prison. I Peter 3. God is a spirit. John 4.


8. Turn of mind; temper; occasions; state of the mind. A perfect judge will read each work of wit, with the same spirit that its author writ.


9. Powers of mind distinct from the body. In spirit perhaps he also saw Rich Mexico, the seat of Montezume.


10. Sentiment; perception. You spirit is too true, your fears too certain.


11. Eager desire; disposition of mind excited and directed to a particular object. God has made a spirit of building succeed a spirit of pulling down.


12. A person of activity; a man of life, vigor or enterprise. The watery kingdom is no bar to stop the foreign spirits, but they come.


13. Persons distinguished by qualities of the mind. Such spirits as he desired to please, such would I choose for my judges.


14. Excitement of mind; animation; cheerfulness; usually in the plural. We found our friend in very good spirits. He has a great flow of spirits. -To sing thy praise, would heaven my breath prolong, Infusing spirits worthy such a song.

15. Life or strength of resemblance; essential qualities; as, to set off the face in its true spirit. The copy has not the spirit of the original.


16. Something eminently pure and refined. Nor doth the eye itself, that most pure spirit of sense, behold itself.


17. That which hath power or energy; the quality of any substance which manifest life, activity, or the power of strongly affecting other bodies; as the spirit of wine or of any liquor.


18. A strong, pungent or stimulation liquor, usually obtained by distillation, as rum, brandy, gin, whiskey. In America, spirit, used without other words explanatory of its meaning, signifies the liquor distilled from cane-juice, or rum. We say, new spirit, or old spirit, Jamaica spirit, &c.


19. An apparition; a ghost.


20. The renewed nature of man. Matthew 26. Galatians 5.


21. The influences of the Holy Spirit. Matthew 22.


SPRINKLE, v.t. G., L.


1. To scatter; to disperse; as a liquid or a dry substance composed of fine separable particles; to besprinkle; as, to sprinkle the earth with water; to sprinkle a floor with sand; to sprinkle paper with iron filings.


2. To scatter on; to disperse on in small drops or particles; to besprinkle; as, to sprinkle the earth with water; to sprinkle a floor with sand; to sprinkle paper with iron filings.


3. To wash; to cleanse; to purify.


Having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience. Hebrews 10.




1. To perform the act of scattering a liquid or any fine substance, so that it may fall in small particles.


The priest shall sprinkle of the oil with his fingers. Leviticus 14.


Baptism may well enough be performed by sprinkling or effusion of water. (Chapter & Verse?)


2. To rain moderately; as it sprinkles.


SPRINKLE, n. A small quantity scattered; also, an utensil for sprinkling.




1. Dispersed in small particles, as a liquid or as dust.


2. Having a liquid or a fine substance scattered over.


STEADFAST, STEDFAST, a. stead and fast.


1. Fast fixed; firm; firmly fixed or established; as the stedfast globe of earth.


2. Constant; firm; resolute; not fickle or wavering.


Abide stedfast to thy neighbor in the time of his trouble.


Him resist, stedfast in the faith. 1 Peter 5.


3. Steady; as stedfast sight.


STIRRED, pp. Moved; agitated; put in action.


SUB'TIL, a. L. subtilis. This word is often written subtle, but less properly.


1. Thin; not dense or gross; as subtil air; subtil vapor; a subtil medium.


2. Nice; fine; delicate.


I do distinguish plain each subtil line of her immortal face.


3. Acute; piercing; as subtil pain.


4. Sly; artful; cunning; crafty; insinuating; as a subtil person; a subtil adversary.


5. Planned by art; deceitful; as a subtil scheme.


6. Deceitful; treacherous.


7. Refined; fine; acute; as a subtil argument.


SUR'FEITING, ppr. Oppressing the system by excessive eating and drinking; cloying; loading or filling to disgust.


SUR'FEITING, n. The act of feeding to excess; gluttony. Luke 21.


TRAV'AIL, v.i. L. trans, over, beyond, and mael, work; Eng. moil.


1. To labor with pain; to toil.


2. To suffer the pangs of childbirth; to be in labor. Genesis.35.


TRAV'AIL, v.t. To harass; to tire; as troubles sufficient to travail the realm. Not in use.


TRAV'AIL, n. Labor with pain; severe toil.


As every thing of price, so doth this require travail.


1. Labor in childbirth; as a severe travail; an easy travail.


TREM'BLE, v.i. L. tremo.


1. To shake involuntarily, as with fear, cold or weakness; to quake; to quiver; to shiver; to shudder.


Frighted Turnus trembled as he spoke.


2. To shake; to quiver; to totter.


Sinai's gray top shall tremble.


3. To quaver; to shake, as sound; as when we say, the voice trembles.


TROUBLED, pp. trub'ld. Disturbed; agitated; afflicted; annoyed; molested.


UNFEIGNED, a. Not feigned; not counterfeit; not hypocritical; real; sincere; as unfeigned piety to God; unfeigned love to man.


UPRIGHT, a. upri'te or up'rite. up and right. This word is marked in books with the accent on the first syllable. But it is frequently pronounced with the accent on the second, and the accent on the first syllable of its derivatives is inadmissible.


1. Erect; perpendicular to the plane of the horizon; as an upright tree; an upright post. Among mechanics, plumb.


2. Erected; pricked up; shooting directly from the body.


All have their ears upright -


With chatt'ring teeth and bristling hair upright.


3. Honest; just; adhering to rectitude in all social intercourse; not deviating from correct moral principles; as an upright man. Job. 1.


4. Conformable to moral rectitude.


Conscience rewards upright conduct with pleasure.


VAIN, a. L. vanus; Eng. wan, wane, want.


1. Empty; worthless; having no substance, value or importance. 1Peter 1.


To your vain answer will you have recourse.


Every man walketh in a vain show. Psalms 39.


Why do the people imagine a vain thing? Psalms 2.


2. Fruitless; ineffectual. All attempts, all efforts were vain.


Vain is the force of man.


3. Proud of petty things, or of trifling attainments; elated with a high opinion of one's own accomplishments, or with things more showy than valuable; conceited.


The minstrels play'd on every side, vain of their art -


4. Empty; unreal; as a vain chimers.


5. Showy; ostentatious.


Load some vain church with old theatric state.


6. Light; inconstant; worthless. Proverbs 12.


7. Empty; unsatisfying. The pleasures of life are vain.


8. False; deceitful; not genuine; spurious. James 1.


9. Not effectual; having no efficacy


Bring no more vain oblations. Isaiah 1.


In vain, to no purpose; without effect; ineffectual.


In vain they do worship me. Matthew 15.


To take the name of God in vain, to use the name of God with levity or profaneness.


VEX, v.t. L. vexo.


1. To irritate; to make angry by little provocations; a popular use of the word.


2. To plague; to torment; to harass; to afflict.


Ten thousand torments vex my heart.


3. To disturb; to disquiet; to agitate.


White curl the waves, and the vex'd ocean roars.


4. To trouble; to distress.


I will also vex the hearts of many people. Ezek. 32.


5. To persecute. Act. 12.


6. To stretch, as by hooks. Not in use.


VEX, v.i. To fret; to be teased or irritated.


VEX'ED, pp. Teased; provoked; irritated; troubled; agitated; disquieted; afflicted.


WAX, n. G., L.


1. A thick, viscid, tenacious substance, collected by bees, or excreted from their bodies, and employed in the construction of their cells; usually called bees wax. Its native color is yellow, but it is bleached for candles, &c.


2. A thick tenacious substance excreted in the ear.


3. A substance secreted by certain plants, forming a silvery powder on the leaves and fruit, as in the wax-palm and wax-myrtle.


4. A substance found on the hinder legs of bees, which is supposed to be their food.


5. A substance used in sealing letters; called sealing-wax, or Spanish wax. This is a composition of gum-lacca and resin, colored with some pigment.


6. A thick substance used by shoemakers for rubbing their thread.


WAX, v.t. To smear or rub with wax; as, to wax, a thread or a table.


WAX, v.i. pret. waxed.; pp. waxed or waxen. G., L., Gr.


1. To increase in size; to grow; to become larger; as the waxing and the waning moon.


2. To pass from one state to another; to become; as, to wax strong; to wax warm or cold; to wax feeble; to wax hot; to wax old; to wax worse and worse.


WONDERFULLY, adv. In a manner to excite wonder or surprise.


I will praise thee, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made. Psalm 139.